We have a new paper out in PNAS, Hypoxia tolerance in the Norrin-deficient retina and the chronically hypoxic brain studied at single-cell resolution.
Abstract: The mammalian CNS is capable of tolerating chronic hypoxia, but cell type-specific responses to this stress have not been systematically characterized. In the Norrin KO (NdpKO) mouse, a model of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), developmental hypovascularization of the retina produces chronic hypoxia of inner nuclear-layer (INL) neurons and Muller glia. We used single-cell RNA sequencing, untargeted metabolomics, and metabolite labeling from 13C-glucose to compare WT and NdpKO retinas. In NdpKO retinas, we observe gene expression responses consistent with hypoxia in Muller glia and retinal neurons, and we find a metabolic shift that combines reduced flux through the TCA cycle with increased synthesis of serine, glycine, and glutathione. We also used single-cell RNA sequencing to compare the responses of individual cell types in NdpKO retinas with those in the hypoxic cerebral cortex of mice that were housed for 1 week in a reduced oxygen environment (7.5% oxygen). In the hypoxic cerebral cortex, glial transcriptome responses most closely resemble the response of Muller glia in the NdpKO retina. In both retina and brain, vascular endothelial cells activate a previously dormant tip cell gene expression program, which likely underlies the adaptive neoangiogenic response to chronic hypoxia. These analyses of retina and brain transcriptomes at single-cell resolution reveal both shared and cell type-specific changes in gene expression in response to chronic hypoxia, implying both shared and distinct cell type-specific physiologic responses.