Category Archives: Connectomics

Distinctive Synaptic Structural Motifs Link Excitatory Retinal Interneurons To Diverse Postsynaptic Partner Types

We have a new manuscript from the lab in Cell Reports, Distinctive Synaptic Structural Motifs Link Excitatory Retinal Interneurons To Diverse Postsynaptic Partner Types. This manuscript is in collaboration with the first author, Wan-Qing Yu @wanqing_yu, then co-authors Rachael Swanstrom, Crystal L. Sigulinsky @CSigulinsky, Richard M. Ahlquist, along with Sharm Knecht, myself Bryan W. Jones @BWJonesDavid M. Berson, and Rachel O. Wong. The PDF is here.

Neurons make converging and diverging synaptic connections with distinct partner types. Whether synapses involving separate partners demonstrate similar or distinct structural motifs is not yet well understood. We thus used serial electron microscopy in mouse retina to map output synapses of cone bipolar cells (CBCs) and compare their structural arrangements across bipolar types and postsynaptic partners. Three presynaptic configurations emerge—single-ribbon, ribbonless, and multiribbon synapses. Each CBC type exploits these arrangements in a unique combination, a feature also found among rabbit ON CBCs. Though most synapses are dyads, monads and triads are also seen. Altogether, mouse CBCs exhibit at least six motifs, and each CBC type uses these in a stereotypic pattern. Moreover, synapses between CBCs and particular partner types appear biased toward certain motifs. Our observations reveal synaptic strategies that diversify the output within and across CBC types, potentially shaping the distinct functions of retinal microcircuits.

One Connectome Finished, Another Pathoconnectome Begins

We finished sectioning and capturing a massive new retinal connectome that we are going to be so excited to announce at some point in the not too distant future.  Effective immediately, we are also starting on a brand new pathoconnectome that we will be powering through over the next little while. Thanks to the team of people who make this happen, shown in this post are Jia-Hui Yang, Matt Berardy, and Rebecca Pfeiffer. More photos here.

Model-Based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina

We have a new manuscript out in Experimental Eye Research, Model-Based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina. (pdf here)

Authors: Pragya Kosta, Ege Iseri, Kyle Loizos, Javad Paknahad, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer @BeccaPfeiffer19, Crystal L. Sigulinsky @CLSigulinsky, James R. Anderson, Bryan W. Jones @BWJones, and Gianluca Lazzi.

Abstract: Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are generally thought to initiate with the loss of photoreceptors, though recent work suggests that plasticity and remodeling occurs prior to photoreceptor cell loss. This degeneration subsequently leads to death of other retinal neurons, creating functional alterations and extensive remodeling of retinal networks. Retinal prosthetic devices stimulate the surviving retinal cells by applying external current using implanted electrodes. Although these devices restore partial vision, the quality of restored vision is limited. Further knowledge about the precise changes in degenerated retina as the disease progresses is essential to understand how current flows in retinas undergoing degenerative disease and to improve the performance of retinal prostheses. We developed computational models that describe current flow from rod photoreceptors to rod bipolar cells


Model-based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina

Chapter: Retinal Connectomics

We have a new chapter out in the Elsevier book series The Senses, 2021.

Authors are myself, Bryan W. Jones @BWJones and Robert E. Marc @robertmarc60.

Abstract: The retina is both a light sensor and a highly complex image-processing device – like supercomputers at the backs of eyes. The retina is also wonderfully compact with all circuitry (glia, neurons, synapses and gap junctions) required to compute sensory input, making it a convenient model for understanding the rest of the nervous system. This is also true for disease, with early evidence indicating retina may be a good model for studying progressive neural degenerative diseases. Modern ultrastructural approaches to the study of neural connections is a relatively new !eld has been termed “connectomics”. Connectomics approaches applied to the retina is termed retinal connectomics. These approaches are relatively new !elds that leverage modern technologies in light and ultrastructural imaging, computational storage, and data management to allow tracking of neuronal identity and connectivity, delivering a robust edge/node network map of circuit topologies. Understanding circuit topologies is critical to understanding how retinas process information, and how information processing is corrupted in disease. This chapter summarizes early history, discusses technical aspects of imaging connectomes, justi!es the importance of why connectomics approaches are important, particularly in retina, discusses what has been learned from early efforts in connectomics, and points the way to the next steps.

Please email me: if you would like a pdf of the chapter.


A pathoconnectome of early neurodegeneration: Network changes in retinal degeneration

We have a new manuscript out in Experimental Eye Research, A pathoconnectome of early neurodegeneration: Network changes in retinal degeneration. (pdf here)

Authors: Rebecca L. Pfeiffer @BeccaPfeiffer19, James R. Anderson, Jeebika Dahal, Jessica C. Garcia, Jia-Hui Yang, Crystal L. Sigulinsky @CLSigulinsky, Kevin Rapp, Daniel P. Emrich, Carl B. Watt, Hope AB Johnstun, Alexis R. Houser, Robert E. Marc @robertmarc60, and Bryan W. Jones @BWJones.

Abstract: Connectomics has demonstrated that synaptic networks and their topologies are precise and directly correlate with physiology and behavior. The next extension of connectomics is pathoconnectomics: to map neural network synaptology and circuit topologies corrupted by neurological disease in order to identify robust targets for therapeutics. In this report, we characterize a pathoconnectome of early retinal degeneration. This pathoconnectome was generated using serial section transmission electron microscopy to achieve an ultrastructural connectome with 2.18nm/px resolution for accurate identification of all chemical and gap junctional synapses. We observe aberrant connectivity in the rod-network pathway and novel synaptic connections deriving from neurite sprouting. These observations reveal principles of neuron responses to the loss of network components and can be extended to other neurodegenerative diseases.


NeuroNex Grant

I am pleased to report that the The Marclab for Connectomics has been funded by the National Science Foundation with a 5 year grant as part of a large, international consortium to study synaptic weighting.  We are collaborating with the Erik Jorgensen laboratory here at the University of Utah, and will be exploring synapses in a model of retinal degeneration.  There is a nice writeup of the award on the Moran Eye Center website, here.

This is a wonderful opportunity to work with other colleagues that will be funded alongside us with this grant, including Uri Manor @manorlaboratory, Davi Bock @dddavi, Josh Vogelstein @neuro_data, Viren Jain @stardazed0, and others.  My thanks to Kristen Harris for heading up this initiative.