Tag Archives: Bryan Jones

Natural Immunoglobulin M-based Delivery of a Complement Alternative Pathway Inhibitor in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration

We have a new manuscript out in Experimental Eye Research, Natural Immunoglobulin M-based Delivery of a Complement Alternative Pathway Inhibitor in Mouse Models of Retinal Degeneration. (pdf here)

Authors: Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Nathaniel Parsons, Crystal Nicholson, Kusumam Joseph, Beth Coughlin, Xiaofeng Yang, Bryan W. Jones @BWJones, Stephen Tomlinson, and Bärbel Rohrer.

Abstract:

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration is a slowly progressing disease. Studies have tied disease risk to an overactive complement system. We have previously demonstrated that pathology in two mouse models, the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model and the smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP) model, can be reduced by specifically inhibiting the alternative complement pathway (AP). Here we report on the development of a novel injury-site targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway, and its characterization in models of retinal degeneration.

Methods: Expression of the danger associated molecular pattern, a modified annexin IV, in injured ARPE-19 cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and complementation assays using B4 IgM mAb. Subsequently, a construct was prepared consisting of B4 single chain antibody (scFv) linked to a fragment of the alternative pathway inhibitor, fH (B4-scFv-fH). ARPE-19 cells stably expressing B4-scFv-fH were microencapsulated and administered intravitreally or subcutaneously into C57BL/6 J mice, followed by CNV induction or smoke exposure. Progression of CNV was analyzed using optical coherence tomography, and SIOP using structure-function analyses. B4-scFv-fH targeting and AP specificity was assessed by Western blot and binding experiments.

Results: B4-scFv-fH was secreted from encapsulated RPE and inhibited complement in RPE monolayers. B4-scFv-fH capsules reduced CNV and SIOP, and western blotting for C3a, C3d, IgM and IgG confirmed a reduction in complement activation and antibody binding in RPE/choroid.

Conclusions: Data supports a role for natural antibodies and neoepitope expression in ocular disease, and describes a novel strategy to target AP-specific complement inhibition to diseased tissue in the eye.

Precis: AMD risk is tied to an overactive complement system, and ocular injury is reduced by alternative pathway (AP) inhibition in experimental models. We developed a novel inhibitor of the AP that targets an injury-specific danger associated molecular pattern, and characterized it in disease models.

Keywords: Alternative pathway inhibitor; Choroidal neovascularization; Complement system; Encapsulated ARPE-19 cells; Natural antibody-mediated targeting; Smoke-induced ocular pathology.

Subretinal Rather Than Intravitreal Adeno-Associated Virus–Mediated Delivery of a Complement Alternative Pathway Inhibitor Is Effective in a Mouse Model of RPE Damage

We have a new manuscript out in iOVS, Subretinal Rather Than Intravitreal Adeno-Associated Virus–Mediated Delivery of a Complement Alternative Pathway Inhibitor Is Effective in a Mouse Model of RPE Damage. (pdf here)

Authors: Balasubramaniam Annamalai; Nathaniel Parsons; Crystal Nicholson; Elisabeth Obert; Bryan W. Jones @BWJones; and Bärbel Rohrer.

Abstract:

Purpose: The risk for age-related macular degeneration has been tied to an overactive complement system. Despite combined attempts by academia and industry to develop therapeutics that modulate the complement response, particularly in the late geographic atrophy form of advanced AMD, to date, there is no effective treatment. We have previously demonstrated that pathology in the smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP) model, a model with similarities to dry AMD, is dependent on activation of the alternative complement pathway and that a novel complement activation site targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway can be delivered to ocular tissues via an adeno-associated virus (AAV).

Methods: Two different viral vectors for specific tissue targeting were compared: AAV5-VMD2-CR2-fH for delivery to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and AAV2YF-smCBA-CR2-fH for delivery to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Efficacy was tested in SIOP (6 months of passive smoke inhalation), assessing visual function (optokinetic responses), retinal structure (optical coherence tomography), and integrity of the RPE and Bruch’s membrane (electron microscopy). Protein chemistry was used to assess complement activation, CR2-fH tissue distribution, and CR2-fH transport across the RPE.

Results: RPE- but not RGC-mediated secretion of CR2-fH was found to reduce SIOP and complement activation in RPE/choroid. Bioavailability of CR2-fH in RPE/choroid could be confirmed only after AAV5-VMD2-CR2-fH treatment, and inefficient, adenosine triphosphate–dependent transport of CR2-fH across the RPE was identified.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that complement inhibition for AMD-like pathology is required basal to the RPE and argues in favor of AAV vector delivery to the RPE or outside the blood-retina barrier.

Model-Based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina

We have a new manuscript out in Experimental Eye Research, Model-Based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina. (pdf here)

Authors: Pragya Kosta, Ege Iseri, Kyle Loizos, Javad Paknahad, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer @BeccaPfeiffer19, Crystal L. Sigulinsky @CLSigulinsky, James R. Anderson, Bryan W. Jones @BWJones, and Gianluca Lazzi.

Abstract: Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are generally thought to initiate with the loss of photoreceptors, though recent work suggests that plasticity and remodeling occurs prior to photoreceptor cell loss. This degeneration subsequently leads to death of other retinal neurons, creating functional alterations and extensive remodeling of retinal networks. Retinal prosthetic devices stimulate the surviving retinal cells by applying external current using implanted electrodes. Although these devices restore partial vision, the quality of restored vision is limited. Further knowledge about the precise changes in degenerated retina as the disease progresses is essential to understand how current flows in retinas undergoing degenerative disease and to improve the performance of retinal prostheses. We developed computational models that describe current flow from rod photoreceptors to rod bipolar cells

 

Model-based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina

Immunization Against Oxidized Elastin Exacerbates Structural and Functional Damage in Mouse Model of Smoke-Induced Ocular Injury

We have a new manuscript out in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Immunization Against Oxidized Elastin Exacerbates Structural and Functional Damage in Mouse Model of Smoke-Induced Ocular Injury

Authors: Balasubramaniam Annamalai; Crystal Nicholson; Nathaniel Parsons; Sarah Stephenson; Carl Atkinson; Bryan Jones; and Bärbel Rohrer.

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in Western populations. While an overactive complement system has been linked to pathogenesis, mechanisms contributing to its activation are largely unknown. In aged and AMD eyes, loss of the elastin layer (EL) of Bruch’s membrane (BrM) has been reported. Elastin antibodies are elevated in patients with AMD, the pathogenic significance of which is unclear. Here we assess the role of elastin antibodies using a mouse model of smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP), which similarly demonstrates EL loss.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were immunized with elastin or elastin peptide oxidatively modified by cigarette smoke (ox-elastin). Mice were then exposed to cigarette smoke or air for 6 months. Visual function was assessed by optokinetic response, retinal morphology by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and electron microscopy, and complement activation and antibody deposition by Western blot.

Results: Ox-elastin IgG and IgM antibodies were elevated in ox-elastin immunized mice following 6 months of smoke, whereas elastin immunization had a smaller effect. Ox-elastin immunization exacerbated smoke-induced vision loss, with thicker BrM and more damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) mitochondria compared with mice immunized with elastin or nonimmunized controls. These changes were correlated with increased levels of IgM, IgG2, IgG3, and complement activation products in RPE/choroid.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that SIOP mice generate elastin-specific antibodies and that immunization with ox-elastin exacerbates ocular pathology. Elastin antibodies represented complement fixing isotypes that, together with the increased presence of complement activation seen in immunized mice, suggest that elastin antibodies exert pathogenic effects through mediating complement activation.

Increasing Electrical Stimulation Efficacy in Degenerated Retina: Stimulus Waveform Design in a Multiscale Computational Model

We have a new publication out (direct link), Increasing Electrical Stimulation Efficacy in Degenerated Retina: Stimulus Waveform Design in a Multiscale Computational Model authored by Kyle Loizos, Robert Marc, Mark Humayun, James R. Anderson, Bryan W. Jones and Gianluca Lazzi.

Abstract—A computational model of electrical stimulation of the retina is proposed for investigating current waveforms used in prosthetic devices for restoring partial vision lost to retina degen- erative diseases. The model framework combines a connectome- based neural network model characterized by accurate mor- phological and synaptic properties with an Admittance Method model of bulk tissue and prosthetic electronics. In this model, the retina was computationally “degenerated,” considering cellular death and anatomical changes that occur early in disease, as well as altered neural behavior that develops throughout the neurodegeneration and is likely interfering with current attempts at restoring vision. A resulting analysis of stimulation range and threshold of ON ganglion cells within retina that are either healthy or in beginning stages of degeneration is presented for currently-used stimulation waveforms, and an asymmetric biphasic current stimulation for subduing spontaneous firing to allow increased control over ganglion cell firing patterns in degenerated retina is proposed. Results show that stimulation thresholds of retinal ganglion cells do not notably vary after beginning stages of retina degeneration. In addition, simulation of proposed asymmetric waveforms showed the ability to enhance the control of ganglion cell firing via electrical stimulation.

Corticostriatal Circuit Defects in Hoxb8 Mutant Mice

We have a new publication in Molecular Psychiatry, Corticostriatal circuit defects in Hoxb8 mutant mice. (Direct link here).  Authors are:  Naveen Nagarajan, Bryan W. Jones, Peter West, Robert Marc, and Mario R. Capecchi.

Abstract: Hoxb8 mutant mice exhibit compulsive grooming and hair removal dysfunction similar to humans with the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. As, in the mouse brain, the only detectable cells that label with Hoxb8 cell lineage appear to be microglia, we suggested that defective microglia cause the neuropsychiatric disorder. Does the Hoxb8 mutation in microglia lead to neural circuit dysfunctions? We demonstrate that Hoxb8 mutants contain corticostriatal circuit defects. Golgi staining, ultra-structural and electrophysiological studies of mutants reveal excess dendritic spines, pre- and postsynaptic structural defects, long-term potentiation and miniature postsynaptic current defects. Hoxb8 mutants also exhibit hyperanxiety and social behavioral deficits similar to mice with neuronal mutations in Sapap3, Slitrk5 and Shank3, reported models of OCD and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Long-term treatment of Hoxb8 mutants with fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, reduces excessive grooming, hyperanxiety and social behavioral impairments. These studies provide linkage between the neuronal defects induced by defective Hoxb8-microglia and neuronal dysfunctions directly generated by mutations in synaptic components that result in mice, which display similar pathological grooming, hyperanxiety and social impairment deficits. Our results shed light on Hoxb8 microglia-driven circuit-specific defects and therapeutic approaches that will become essential to developing novel
therapies for neuropsychiatric diseases such as OCD and ASDs with Hoxb8-microglia being the central target.

Pattern Recognition Analysis Reveals Unique Contrast Sensitivity Isocontours Using Static Perimetry Thresholds Across The Visual Field

We have a new publication in IOVS, Pattern Recognition Analysis Reveals Unique Contrast Sensitivity Isocontours Using Static Perimetry Thresholds Across The Visual Field (Direct link here).  Authors are:  Jack Phu, Sieu Khuu, Lisa Nivison-Smith, Barbara Zangerl, Agnes Yiu, Jeung Choi, Bryan W. JonesRebecca Pfeiffer, Robert Marc, and Michael Kalloniatis.

Purpose
To determine the locus of test locations that exhibit statistically similar age-related decline in sensitivity to light increments and age-corrected contrast sensitivity isocontours (CSIs) across the central visual field (VF). We compared these CSIs with test point clusters used by the Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT).

Methods
Sixty healthy observers underwent testing on the Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 test grid using Goldmann (G) stimulus sizes I-V. Age-correction factors for GI-V were determined using linear regression analysis. Pattern recognition analysis was used to cluster test locations across the VF exhibiting equal age-related sensitivity decline (age-related CSIs), and points of equal age-corrected sensitivity (age-corrected CSIs) for GI-V.

Results
There was a small but significant test size–dependent sensitivity decline with age, with smaller stimuli declining more rapidly. Age-related decline in sensitivity was more rapid in the periphery. A greater number of unique age-related CSIs was revealed when using smaller stimuli, particularly in the mid-periphery. Cluster analysis of age-corrected sensitivity thresholds revealed unique CSIs for GI-V, with smaller stimuli having a greater number of unique clusters. Zones examined by the GHT consisted of test locations that did not necessarily belong to the same CSI, particularly in the periphery.

Conclusions
Cluster analysis reveals statistically significant groups of test locations within the 30-2 test grid exhibiting the same age-related decline. CSIs facilitate pooling of sensitivities to reduce the variability of individual test locations. These CSIs could guide future structure-function and alternate hemifield asymmetry analyses by comparing matched areas of similar sensitivity signatures.

Pattern Recognition Analysis of Age-Related Retinal Ganglion Cell Signatures In The Human Eye

We have a new publication in IOVS, Pattern Recognition Analysis of Age-Related Retinal Ganglion Cell Signatures In The Human Eye (Direct link here).  Authors are:  Nayuta Yoshioka, Barbara Zangerl, Lisa Nivison-Smith, Sieu Khuu, Bryan W. Jones, Rebecca Pfeiffer, Robert Marc, and Michael Kalloniatis.

Purpose: We recently used pattern recognition analysis to show macula areas can be classified into statistically distinct clusters in accordance to their age-related retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) thickness change in a normal population. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective cross-sectional analysis utilizing a large cohort of patients to establish accuracy of this model and to develop a normative dataset using a 50-year-old equivalent cohort.

Methods: Data was collected from patients seen at the Centre for Eye Health for optic nerve assessment without posterior pole disease. The grid-wise RGCL thickness was obtained from a single eye of each patient via Spectralis OCT macular scan over an 8×8 measurement grid. Measurements for patients outside the 45-54 age range (training cohort) were converted to 50-year-old equivalent value utilizing pattern recognition derived regression model which, in brief, consists of 8×8 grid clustered into 8 distinct classes according to the pattern of RGCL thickness change with age. Accuracy of the predictions was assessed by comparing the training cohort’s measurements to the 45-54 year reference cohort using t-test and one-way ANOVA.

Results: Data were collected from a total 248 patients aged 20 to 78.1 years. 80 patients within this group were aged 45 – 54 and formed the reference cohort (average±SD 49.6±2.83) and the remaining 168 eyes formed the training cohort (average age±SD 50.7±17.34). Converted values for the training set matched those of the reference cohort (average disparity±SD 0.10±0.42µm, range -0.74-1.34µm) and were not significantly different (p > 0.9). Most variability was observed with patients above 70 years of age (average disparity±SD -0.09±1.73µm, range -3.67 to 6.16µm) and central grids corresponding to the fovea (average disparity±SD 0.47±0.72µm, range -0.22 to 1.34µm).

Conclusions: Our regression model for normal age-related RGCL change can accurately convert and/or predict RGCL thickness for individuals in comparison to 50-year-equivalent reference cohort and could allow for more accurate assessment of RGCL thickness and earlier detection of significant loss in the future. Caution may be needed when applying the model in the foveal area or for patients older than 70 years.

Synaptic Inputs To A Gamma Ganglion Cell In Rabbit Retina

This abstract was presented today, May 8th at the 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Baltimore, Maryland by Andrea Bordt, Diego Perez, Robert E. Marc, James R. Anderson, Carl B. Watt, Bryan W. Jones, Crystal Sigulinsky, James S. Lauritzen, Danny Emrich, Noah Nelson, Luke Tseng, Weiley Liu, and David W. Marshak. Full resolution version here.

Purpose: There are at least 30 distinct types of mammalian retinal ganglion cells, each sensitive to different features of the visual environment, and these can be grouped according to their morphology. One such group, the gamma cells, was identified more than 40 years ago, but their synaptic inputs have never been described. That was the goal of this study.

Methods: The synaptic inputs to a subtype of gamma cell with dendrites ramifying in the outer sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rabbit retina were identified in a retinal connectome developed using automated transmission electron microscopy.

Results: The gamma cell was always postsynaptic in the IPL, confirming its identity as a ganglion cell. The local synaptic input should produce relatively weak OFF reposnses to stimuli confined to the center of the gamma cell’s receptive field. It typically received only one synapse per bipolar cell from at least 4 types of OFF bipolar cells. Because bipolar cells vary in their response kinetics and contrast sensitivity. each type would provide a small, asynchronous excitatory input. The amacrine cells at the dyad synapses provided only a small amount presynaptic inhibition; reciprocal synapses were observed in only 3 of the 18 ribbon synapses. There was no glycinergic crossover inhibition, another local interaction that would enhance light responses. Local postsynaptic inhibition was somewhat more common; in 6 instances, the bipolar cells presynaptic to the gamma cell or their electrically coupled neighbors also provided input to an amacrine cell that inhibited the gamma cell. The other amacrine cell inputs to the gamma cell should have a much greater impact on the light responses because they are far more numerous. These are from axons and long dendrites of GABAergic amacrine cells, and they provide 60% of all the input. This finding suggests that many types of stimuli in the receptive field surround or outside of the classical receptive field would provide potent inhibition to the gamma cell.

Conclusions: The synaptic inputs rsuggest that gamma cells in rabbit retina would have light responses like their homologs in mouse retina, OFF responses to small stimuli in the receptive field center that are suppressed by a variety of larger stimuli. Thus, they would signal object motion selectively.

Predicting Age-related Changes with High Accuracy using a Pattern Recognition Derived Retinal Ganglion Cell Regression Model

This abstract was presented yesterday, May 7th at the 2017 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Baltimore, Maryland by Nayuta Yoshioka, Barbara Zangerl, Lisa Nivison-Smith, Sieu Khuu, Bryan W. Jones, Rebecca Pfeiffer, Robert Marc, and Michael Kalloniatis.

Purpose: We recently used pattern recognition analysis to show macula areas can be classified into statistically distinct clusters in accordance to their age-related retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) thickness change in a normal population. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective cross-sectional analysis utilizing a large cohort of patients to establish accuracy of this model and to develop a normative dataset using a 50-year-old equivalent cohort.

Methods: Data was collected from patients seen at the Centre for Eye Health for optic nerve assessment without posterior pole disease. The grid-wise RGCL thickness was obtained from a single eye of each patient via Spectralis OCT macular scan over an 8×8 measurement grid. Measurements for patients outside the 45-54 age range (training cohort) were converted to 50-year-old equivalent value utilizing pattern recognition derived regression model which, in brief, consists of 8×8 grid clustered into 8 distinct classes according to the pattern of RGCL thickness change with age. Accuracy of the predictions was assessed by comparing the training cohort’s measurements to the 45-54 year reference cohort using t-test and one-way ANOVA.

Results: Data were collected from a total 248 patients aged 20 to 78.1 years. 80 patients within this group were aged 45 – 54 and formed the reference cohort (average±SD 49.6±2.83) and the remaining 168 eyes formed the training cohort (average age±SD 50.7±17.34). Converted values for the training set matched those of the reference cohort (average disparity±SD 0.10±0.42µm, range -0.74-1.34µm) and were not significantly different (p > 0.9). Most variability was observed with patients above 70 years of age (average disparity±SD -0.09±1.73µm, range -3.67 to 6.16µm) and central grids corresponding to the fovea (average disparity±SD 0.47±0.72µm, range -0.22 to 1.34µm).

Conclusions: Our regression model for normal age-related RGCL change can accurately convert and/or predict RGCL thickness for individuals in comparison to 50-year-equivalent reference cohort and could allow for more accurate assessment of RGCL thickness and earlier detection of significant loss in the future. Caution may be needed when applying the model in the foveal area or for patients older than 70 years.