Robert E. Marc

 Robert E. Marc, Ph.D.  – Emeritus

Brief Academic History

  • Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology
  • Calvin & JeNeal Hatch Endowed Chair in Ophthalmology
  • Director of Research, Moran Eye Center
  • Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Utah School of Medicine
  • Robert Greer Professor of Neural Sciences, University of Texas / Houston
  • NIH NRSA Postdoctoral Fellowship 1977, UCLA School of Medicine
  • Ph.D. 1975 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
  • B.Sc. Honors 1971 University of Texas at El Paso
  • Austin High School El Paso Texas 1967
  • Bassett Jr. High School El Paso Texas 1963
  • Crockett Elementary School El Paso Texas 1961
  • Sacramento School El Paso Texas 2nd grade <>
  • Southern France, 1st grade Cavernes, France
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  • 1993…2007 Professor of Ophthalmology & Physiology, Univ Utah Sch Med
  • 1986…1993 Professor of Neural Sciences, UTGSBS, Houston
  • 1982…1986 Associate Professor of Neural Sciences, UTGSBS, Houston
  • 1978…1982 Assistant Professor of Neural Sciences, UTGSBS, Houston



  • 2011…present Editorial Board, Journal of Comparative Neurology
  • 1997…2002 Associate Editor, Visual Neuroscience
  • 1992 Co-editor (Mize, Marc, Sillito) Progress in Brain Research V 90
  • 1991…1993 Editorial Board, Visual Neuroscience
  • 1985…1992 Executive Editor, Experimental Eye Research


  • 2011…present, Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology
  • 2009 University of Utah Graduate Student and Postdoctoral Scholar Mentor Award
  • 2007…present, Calvin & JeNeal Hatch Endowed Chair in Ophthalmology
  • 2003…2007, Mary H. Boesche Professorship, University of Utah
  • 2003…2005 Research to Prevent Blindness Senior Investigator Award, University of Utah
  • 1993…2001 Jules & Doris Stein Research to Prevent Blindness Professorship, University of Utah
  • 1986…1993 Robert Greer Professorship, UTGSBS
  • 1980, 1997, 1998 Invited Lecturer 3rd, 20th, and Final Taniguchi Symposium
  • 1976 Glenn Fry Award, American Academy of Optometry
  • 1972 Student Fellow, Argonne National Laboratories Conference on Photobiology
  • 1967…1971 Stevens Scholar and B.Sc. Honors, University of Texas at El Paso


  • Society for Neuroscience
  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
  • AAAS


  • 2010 … Entrepreneurial Faculty Scholars, University of Utah
  • 2006… Director of Research, University of Utah Department of Ophthalmology
  • 2004…2006 Associate Director of Research, University of Utah Department of Ophthalmology
  • 2004…2006 Directorate, University of Utah Neuroscience Program
  • 1986…2007 Ad hoc reviewer for NSF and NIH NEI
  • 1994…1999 Course Director, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience Core Course
  • 1994…1996 Chair, University of Utah Neuroscience Program Curriculum Committee
  • 1992… NSF Committee of Visitors (External Review of NSF Policies)
  • 1991…1993 Fellowship Review Board, Fight for Sight (Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc.)
  • 1992… U Texas Health Sci Ctr / Hou Planning and Budget Committee
  • 1990…1992 Chair, Committee of Professors, UTGSBS UTGSBS
  • 1990…1993 Academic Standards Comm (Chair, 1992-1993), UTGSBS
  • 1989…1991 Cell Biology Program Planning Comm, ARVO
  • 1989… Strategic Planning Committee, U Texas Health Sci Ctr / Hou
  • 1988… Federal Demonstration Project Committee, U Texas Health Sci Ctr / Hou
  • 1982…1986 NIH NEI Study Section, VIS A2

(Conference chairs, Invited lectures etc., not included) 31 y graduate level teaching, 1 MSc, 6 PhDs, 9 post-doctoral fellows, two current PhD students

  • 2009…University of Utah Graduate Student and Postdoctoral Scholar Mentor Award
  • 2005…Session Organizer on Imaging Retinal Function 9th Vision Research Conf, Ft Lauderdale
  • 2002…Session Organizer on Retinal Remodeling 6th Vision Research Conf, Ft Lauderdale
  • 2000…2002 Lecturer, Physiology 7910, Computational molecular phenotyping
  • 1997…Co-Organizer, 3rd Great Basin Visual Science Symposium
  • 1997…Organizer, Western Eye Research Conference, Snowbird
  • 1994…1999 Director, Cellular / Molecular Neuroscience, Neuroscience Program Core Course
  • 1994…1999 Cellular / Molecular Neuroscience: Ranked 1st lecturer all 6 years.
  • 1994…1996 Vision Lectures, 1st Y Medical Students, U Utah Med Sch
  • 1993…2007 Visual Neuroscience, University of Utah
  • 1993…2009 Director: Visual Neuroscience, University of Utah
  • 1989…The Dean’s Teaching Excellence Award, UTGSBS
  • 1985…1990 Dean’s Teaching Excellence List, UTGSBS
  • 1981…1983 Sensory Physiology Lectures, 1st Y Medical Students, U Texas Med Sch
  • 1981…1991 Director: Visual Neuroscience I & II,
  • 1981…1991 Visual Neuroscience II, UTGSBS, 2 lectures
  • 1981…1991 Visual Neuroscience I, UTGSBS, 10 Lectures
  • 1981…1991 Sensory Neuroethology, Sole lecturer, UTGSBS
  • 1980…1990 Evolution of the Vertebrate Nervous System, Sole lecturer, UTGSBS
  • 1978…1980 Sensory Biology, Lecturer for 1/4 of course, UTGSBS
  • 1978…2007 Supervisory Committees for 35 doctoral students


  • 2012 Rabbit retinal optogenetics initiated
  • 2012 Complete mouse retinal mapping ultrastructure volume RC2 in progress
  • 2009 Complete rabbit retinal mapping ultrastructure volume RC1 completed
  • 2007 Characterization of neural reprogramming processes in retinal degenerations
  • 2003 Characterization of neural remodeling processes in retinal degenerations
  • 2002 First comprehensive mapping of ganglion cells published
  • 2000 Computational fusion of EM ultrastructure-LM molecular mapping published
  • 2000 New metabolic activity mapping probes developed
  • 1999 Novel channel permeation activity mapping published
  • 1998 Computational molecular phenotyping of a disease process published
  • 1996 Signature Immunologics Inc established
  • 1995 Channel permeation activity probes developed
  • 1995 First computational molecular phenotyping published
  • 1990…2004 Library of >50 molecular probes developed
  • 1990 Quantitative mapping of cellular glutamic acid distributions published
  • 1978…1981 EM microscopic mappings of retinal inhibitory transmitter circuits published
  • 1975…1977 First functional mapping of vertebrate cone mosaics published

2010-2019 (18::93)

Lauritzen JS, Anderson JR, Jones BW, Watt CB, Mohammed S, Hoang JV, Marc RE 2013
ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses in the OFF inner plexiform layer of the rabbit retina.
Journal of Comparative Neurology. In press.

Marc RE, Jones BW, Lauritzen JS, Watt CB, Anderson JR. 2013
Retinal Connectomics: A new era for connectivity analysis.
New Visual Neurosciences. In Press.

Marc RE, Anderson JR, Jones BW, Watt CB 2012
Building retinal connectomes.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 22:568-574. :: PubMed PMID 22498714::

Jones BW, Kondo M, Terasaki H, Lin Y, McCall M, Marc RE. 2012
Retinal remodeling.
Jpn J Ophthalmol 56:289-306 PubMed PMID 22644448::

Ross JW, Fernandez de Castro JP, Zhao J, Samuel M, Walters E, Rios C, Bray-Ward P, Jones BW, Marc RE, Wang W, Zhou L, Noel JM, McCall MA, DeMarco PJ, Prather RS, Kaplan HJ. 2012
Generation of an inbred miniature pig model of retinitis pigmentosa.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 53:501-507. PubMed PMID 22247487:: PubMedCentral PMC3292381::

Seiler MJ, Jones BW, Aramant RB, Yang PB, Keirstead HS, Marc RE. 2012 Computational molecular phenotyping of retinal sheet transplants to rats with retinal degeneration Eur J Neurosci. 35:1692-704. PubMed PMID 22594836::

Lin Y, Jones BW, Liu A, Vazquez-Chona FR, Lauritzen JS, Ferrell WD, Marc RE. 2012 Rapid glutamate receptor 2 trafficking during retinal degeneration. Mol Neurodegener. 7:7 :: PubMed PMID 22325330:: PubMedCentral PMC3296582::

Lin Y, Jones BW, Liu A, Tucker JF, Rapp K, Luo L, Baehr W, Bernstein PS, Watt CB,Yang J-H, Shaw MV, Marc RE. 2011 Retinoid receptors trigger neuritogenesis in retinal degenerations. The FASEB Journal 26: 81-92. PubMed PMID 21940995:: PubMedCentral PMC3250249::

Lee D, Vazquez-Chona F, Ferrell WD, Tam B, Jones BW, Marc RE, and Moritz O 2012 Dysmorphic photoreceptors in a P23H mutant rhodopsin model of retinitis pigmentosa are metabolically active and capable of regenerating to reverse retinal degeneration. J Neuroscience 32(6):2121-2128. :: Pubmed PMID: 22323724:: Open access J Neurosci article::

Jones A, Kumar S, Zhang N, Tong Z, Yang JH, Watt C, Anderson J, Amrita, Fillerup H, McCloskey M, Luo L, Yang Z, Ambati B, Marc R, Oka C, Zhang K, Fu Y 2011 Increased expression of multifunctional serine protease, HTRA1, in retinal pigment epithelium induces polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108:14578-83. Epub 2011 Aug 15 :: PubMed PMID 21844367:: PubMedCentral PMC3167497::

Vazquez-Chona FR, Swan A, Ferrell WD, Jiang L, Baehr W, Chien WM, Fero M, Marc RE, Levine EM 2011 Proliferative reactive gliosis is compatible with glial metabolic support and neuronal function. BMC Neurosci 12(1):98-108. [Epub ahead of print] :: PubMed PMID 21985191:: PubMedCentral PMC3203081::

Jones BW, Kondo M, Terasaki H, Watt CB, Rapp K, Anderson J, Lin Y, Shaw MV, Yang J-H, Marc R 2011 Retinal Remodeling in the Tg P347L Rabbit, a Large-Eye Model of Retinal Degeneration. J Comp Neurol. 2011 1;519(14):2713-2733 :: PubMed PMID 21681749::

Anderson JR, Jones BW, Watt CB, Shaw MV, Yang J.-H., DeMill D, Lauritzen J.S., Lin Y., Rapp KD, Mastronarde D, Koshevoy P, Grimm B, Tasdizen T, Whitaker R, Marc RE 2011 Exploring the retinal connectome. ∞ Molecular Vision 17:355-379 :: PubMed PMID 21311605:: ∞ PDF

Anderson JR, Mohammed S, Grimm B, Jones BW, Koshevoy P, Tasdizen T, Whitaker R, Marc R 2011 The Viking viewer for connectomics: scalable multi-user annotation and summarization of large volume data sets. J Microscopy: 241:13-28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2010.03402.x.
PubMed PMID 21118201:: PubMedCentral PMC 3017751::

Tasdizen T, Koshevoy P,Grimm B, Anderson JR, Jones BW, Whitaker R, Marc RE Automatic mosaicking and volume assembly for high-throughput serial-section transmission electron microscopy. J Neuroscience Methods: 193:132-44.
PubMed PMID 20713087:: ∞ PDF

Jurrus E, Paiva ARC, Watanabe S, Jorgensen EM, Anderson JR, Jones BW, Whitaker R, Marc R, Tasdizen T 2010 Detection of neuron membranes in electron microscopy images using a serial neural network architecture. Medical Image Analysis 14:770-783.
PubMed PMID 20598935:: ∞ PDF

Marc RE 2010 Injury and Repair: Retinal Remodeling. Encyclopedia of the Eye (Elsevier) Vol 2, pp: 414-420. 3.6 Mb PDF

Marc RE 2010 Information Processing: Amacrine Cells. Encyclopedia of the Eye (Elsevier) Vol 2, pp: 330-337. 836 Kb PDF

2000-2009 [29::75]

Anderson JR, Jones BW, Yang J-H, Shaw MV, Watt CB, Koshevoy P, Spaltenstein J, Jurrus E, Kannan UV, Whitaker R, Mastronarde D, Tasdizen T, Marc R 2009 A computational framework for ultrastructural mapping of neural circuitry. PLoS Biol 7(3): e1000074 [doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000074]
PubMed PMID 19855814:: PubMedCentral PMC2661966

Avasthi P, Watt CB, Williams DS, Le YZ, Li S, Chen CK, Marc RE, Frederick JM, Baehr W. 2009 Trafficking of membrane proteins to cone but not rod outer segments is dependent on heterotrimeric kinesin-II. J Neurosci. 2009 Nov 11;29(45):14287-98.
PubMed PMID 19906976 PubMedCentral PMC 2788486

Marc RE 2010 Synaptic Organization of the retina. Adler’s Physiology of the Eye (Elsevier) in press.

Marc RE 2009 Functional Anatomy of the Retina. Duane’s Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology (Tasman and Jaeger). 6 Mb PDF

Jurrus E, Whitaker RT, Jones BW, Marc RE, Tasdizen T. 2008 An optimal-path approach for neural circuit reconstruction. Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro: 1609–1612. PDF

Butterwick A, Huie P, Jones BW, Marmor MF, Marc RE, Palanker D 2008. Effect of shape and coating of a subretinal prosthesis on its integration with the retina. Experimental Eye Research 88: 22-29. PDF

Marc RE, Jones BW, Watt CB, Vazquez-Chona F, Vaughan DK, Organisciak DT 2008 Extreme retinal remodeling triggered by light damage: Implications for AMD. Molecular Vision 14:782-806. PubMed PMID 18483561 :: PubMedCentral PMC 2375357

Marc RE 2008 Functional Neuroanatomy of the Retina in Albert and Jakobiec’s Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, 3rd edition (Eds Albert and Miller) Elsevier, pp. 1565-1592. PDF

Marc RE, BW Jones, JR Anderson, K Kinard, DW Marshak, JH Wilson, TG Wensel, RJ Lucas. 2007 Neural reprogramming in retinal degenerations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48: 3364-3371. PubMed PMID 17591910 :: PubMedCentral PMC2408857

Koshevoy P, Tasdizen T, Whitaker R, Jones BW, Marc RE. 2006 Assembly of large three-dimensional volumes from serial-section transmission electron microscopy. Proceedings of 2006 MICCAI Workshop on Microscopic Image Analysis with Applications in Biology. PDF

Jones BW, RE Marc, CB Watt, DK Vaughan, DT Organisciak 2006 Neural plasticity revealed by light-induced photoreceptor lesions. Retinal Degenerative Diseases, Springer, (New York), pp. 405-410.

Marc RE, M Kalloniatis, and BW Jones. 2005 Excitation mapping with the organic cation AGB2+. Vision Research, 45: 3454-3468. PubMed PDF

Jones BW, CB Watt and RE Marc. 2005 Retinal remodeling in retinal degenerations. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 88: 282-291. PubMed PDF

Jones BW and RE Marc. 2005 Review: Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration. Experimental Eye Research, 81: 121-244. PubMed PDF

Marc RE, BW Jones and CB Watt 2005 Retinal remodeling: Circuitry revisions triggered by photoreceptor degeneration. In Plasticity in the Visual system: from Genes to Circuits. Eds, Pinaud et al., Springer, pp. 33-54.

Sarthy VP, L Pignataro, T Pannicke, M Weick, A Reichenbach, T Harada, K Tanaka and RE Marc 2005 Glutamate Transport by Retinal Müller Cells in Glutamate /Aspartate Transporter -knockout mice. Glia 49:184-196 PubMed PDF

Rohrer B, R Blanco, RE Marc, MB Lloyd, D Bok, DM Schneeweis, LF Reichardt 2004 Functionally intact glutamate-mediated signaling in bipolar-cells of the Trkb knockout mouse retina. Visual Neurosci 21:703-13. PubMed PDF

Sarthy VP, RE Marc, L Pignataro, K Tanaka 2004 Contribution of a glial glutamate transporter to GABA synthesis in the retina. NeuroReport 15: 1895-1898 PubMed PDF

Marc RE 2004 “Retinal Neurotransmitters” in The Visual Neurosciences (Chalupa and Werner, Eds.). MIT Press, pp 315-330. PDF

Marc RE, BW Jones, CB Watt and E Strettoi 2003 Neural Remodeling in Retinal Degeneration. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 22: 607-655. PubMed PDF

Marc RE, BW Jones 2003 Phenotyping neurons with pattern recognition of molecular mixtures. IEEE, Intermational Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications, S1571. PDF

Marc RE, BW Jones 2003 Retinal remodeling in inherited photoreceptor degenerations. Molecular Neurobiology 28: 139-148. PubMed PDF

Jones BW, CB Watt, JM Frederick, W Baehr, CK Chen, EM Levine, AH Milam, MM LaVail, RE Marc 2003 Retinal remodeling triggered by photoreceptor degenerations. J Comp Neurol 464: 1-16. PubMed PDF

Marc RE 2002 A review of: Retinal Cell Rescue – The Sixth Annual Vision Research Conference. Investigational Drugs: Weekly Highlights June 2002: 53-60. PDF

Joyce-Brady M, RE Marc, JC Jean 2002 The importance of gamma-Glutamyl transferase in lung glutathione homeostasis and antioxidant defense in Thiol Metabolism and Redox Regulation of Cellular Functions (Pompella et al. Eds) IOS Press, 182-196.

Jean JC, Y Liu, LA Brown, RE Marc, E Klings, M Joyce-Brady 2002 Gamma-glutamyltransferase deficiency results in lung oxidant stress in normoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 283: 766-776. PubMed PDF

Marc RE and D Cameron 2002 A molecular phenotype atlas of the zebrafish retina. J Neurocytol. 30: 593-654. PubMed PDF

Marc RE and BW Jones 2002 Molecular phenotyping of retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 22:413-427. PubMed PDF

Marc RE and WL Liu 2000 Fundamental GABAergic amacrine cell circuitries in the retina: Nested feedback, concatenated inhibition, and axosomatic synapses. J Comp Neurol 425: 560-582. PubMed PDF

1990-1999 [18::46]

Marc RE 1999 “The Structure of Vertebrate Retinas” in The Retinal Basis of Vision (Toyoda et al, Eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 3-19. PDF

Marc RE 1999 Kainate activation of horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. J Comp Neurol 407:65-76. PubMed PDF

Marc RE 1999 Mapping glutamatergic drive in the vertebrate retina with a channel permeant organic cation. J Comp Neurol 407:47-64. PubMed PDF

Marc RE, R Murry, SK Fisher, K Linberg, G Lewis. 1998 Amino Acid Signatures in the Detached Cat Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39:1694-1702. PubMed

Marc RE, R Murry, SK Fisher, K Linberg, G Lewis, M Kalloniatis. 1998 Amino Acid Signatures in the Normal Cat Retina.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39:1685-1693. PubMed

Gaal L, B Roska, SA Picaud, SM Wu, R Marc, FS Werblin 1998 Postsynaptic response kinetics are controlled by a glutamate transporter at cone photoreceptors. J Neurophysiol 79:190-196. PubMed PDF

Kalloniatis M, RE Marc, R Murry 1996 Amino acid signatures in the primate retina . J Neurosci 16:6807-6829. PubMed PDF

Marc RE, R Murry, SF Basinger 1995 Pattern recognition of amino acid signatures in retinal neurons. J Neurosci 15:5106-5129. PubMed PDF

Marc RE 1995 Interplexiform cell connectivity in the outer retina. In Neurobiology of the Vertebrate Outer Retina (eds S Archer, MBA Djamgoz, S Vallerga). Chapman and Hall, London, pp 369-393.

Kalloniatis MK, G Tomisch, RE Marc 1994 Neurochemical signatures revealed by glutamine labeling in the chicken retina. Visual Neurosci. 11:793-804. PubMed

Marc RE 1994 Visualizing amino acids in the retina. In The First Great Basin Symposium on Visual Science, U Utah Press, Vol. 1: 58-68.

Van Haesendonck E, RE Marc, L Missotten 1993 New aspects of dopaminergic interplexiform cell organization in the goldfish retina. J Comp Neurol 333:503-518. PubMed

Massey SC, SL Mills, RE Marc 1992 Indoleamine accumulating amacrine cells in the rabbit retina contain GABA. J Comp Neurol 322:275-291. PubMed

Critz S, RE Marc 1992 Glutamate antagonists that block hyperpolarizing bipolar cells increase the release of dopamine from turtle retina. Visual Neurosci 9:271-278. PubMed

Marc RE 1992 The structure of GABAergic circuits in ectotherm retinas. In Mize R, Marc RE and Sillito, A (Eds), GABA in the Retina and Central Visual System, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 61-92.

Marc RE, WLS Liu, M Kalloniatis, S Raiguel, E Van Haesendonck 1990 Patterns of glutamate immunoreactivity in the goldfish retina. J Neuroscience 10:4006-4034. PubMed PDF

Kalloniatis M, RE Marc 1990 Interplexiform cells of the goldfish retina. J Comp Neurol 297:340-358. PubMed

Muller JF and RE Marc 1990 GABA-ergic and glycinergic pathways in the inner plexiform layer of the goldfish retina.J Comp Neurol 291:281-3. PubMed

1980-1989 [21::28]

Marc RE 1989 Evolution of retinal circuits. In J. Erber, R. Menzel, H.-J. Pfluger, D. Todt (Eds.), Neural Mechanisms of Behavior, Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Neuroethology, Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., N.Y., pp. 146-147.

Marc RE 1989 Review: The anatomy of multiple GABAergic and glycinergic pathways in the inner plexiform layer of the goldfish retina. In R. Weiler and N.N. Osborne (Eds.), Neurobiology of the Inner Retina , NATO ASI Series, Vol. H31a, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 53-64.

Marc RE 1989 Review: The role of glycine in the mammalian retina in Progress in Retinal Research, Vol. 8 N. Osborne and G. Chader, Eds., Pergamon Press, London, pp. 67-107.

Marc RE, WLS Liu, K Scholz, JF Muller 1988 Serotonergic pathways in the goldfish retina. J Neurosci 8:3427-3450. PubMed PDF

Elberger A, RE Marc 1988 Norepinephrine is a pre-synaptic input to visual corpus callosum cells. Neurosci Lttrs 84:167-172. PubMed

Marc RE, WLS Liu, JF Muller 1988 Gap junctions in the inner plexiform layer of the goldfish retina.Vision Res 28:9-24. PubMed PDF

Marc RE 1986 Review: The development of retinal networks in Cell Biology of the Retina, R Adler and D Farber, Eds., Academic Press, pp. 17-65.

Marc RE 1986 Neurochemical stratification in the inner plexiform layer of the vertebrate retina. Vision Res 26:223-238. PubMed

Marc RE 1985 Review: The role of glycine in retinal circuitry in Retinal Transmitters and Modulators: Models for the Brain Vol. 1, Wm Morgan, Ed, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 119-158.

Marc RE, WLS Liu 1985 Glycine-accumulating neurons in the human retina. J Comp Neurol 232: 241-260. PubMed

Marc RE, WLS Liu 1984 Horizontal cell synapses onto glycine-accumulating interplexiform cells. Nature 311:266-269. PubMed

Muller JF, RE Marc 1984 Three distinct morphological classes of receptors in fish olfactory organs. J Comp Neurol 222:482-495. PubMed

Lam DMK, J Fredericks, JG Hollyfield, PV Sarthy, RE Marc 1982 Identification of neurotransmitter candidates in the invertebrate and vertebrate photoreceptor. In The Evolution of Photoreceptors, J Westphall Ed., Raven Pres, NY, pp. 65-80.

Marc RE 1982 Review: Chromatic organization of the retina in Cellular Aspects of the Eye, D McDevitt, Ed., Academic Press, NY, pp. 435-473.

Marc RE 1982 Retinal neurotransmitters, morphology and color coding. Taniguchi Foundation Symposium. Color research and Application 7:155-158.

Marc RE 1982 Spatial organization of neurochemically classified interneurons in the goldfish retina. I. Local patterns. Vision Res 22:589-608. PubMed

Marc RE, DMK Lam 1981 Uptake of aspartic and glutamic acid by goldfish photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:7185-7189. PubMed

Marc RE, DMK Lam 1981 Glycinergic pathways in the goldfish retina. J Neurosci 1: 152-165 PubMed

Lam DMK, YYT Su, CA Chin, C Brandon, RE Marc, RM Lasater 1980 GABAergic horizontal cells in the teleost retina.Brain Res Bull. 5:137-140

Lam DMK, RE Marc, PV Sarthy, CA Chin, YYT Su, C Brandon & JY Wu 1980 Retinal organization: Neurotransmitters as physiological probes. Neurochemistry 1:183-190.

Marc RE 1980 Retinal colour channels and their neurotransmitters in Colour Deficiencies V, Adam Hilger Ltd, London, pp. 15-29.


1976-1979 [7]

Lam DMK, YYT Su, L Swain, RE Marc, C Brandon, JY Wu 1979 Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the goldfish retina. Nature 278:565-567. PubMed

Marc RE, WK Stell, D Bok, DMK Lam 1978 GABAergic pathways in the goldfish retina. J Comp Neurol 182:221-246. PubMed

Marc RE 1977 Review: Glenn Fry Award Lecture: Chromatic patterns of cone photoreceptors. Am. J. Optometry and Physiological Optics 54:212-225. PubMed

Marc RE, HG Sperling 1977 The chromatic organization of primate cones. Science 196:454-456. PubMed

Marc RE, HG Sperling 1976 The chromatic organization of the goldfish cone mosaic. Vision Res 16:1211-1224. PubMed

Marc RE, HG Sperling 1976 The color receptor identities of goldfish cones. Science 191:487-489. PubMed

Crawford MLJ, RE Marc 1976 Light transmission of cat and monkey eyelids. Vision Res 16:323-324. PubMed