Category Archives: Meetings

Coupling architecture of the retinal Aii/ON cone bipolar cell network and alteration in degeneration

This poster was presented today, July 28th at the 2019 International Gap Junction Conference in Victoria, Canada by Crystal L. Sigulinsky, Rebecca L. PfeifferJames R. Anderson, Christopher Rapp, Jeebika Dahal, Jessica C Garcia, Jia-Hui Yang, Daniel P. Emrich, Hope Morrison, Kevin D. Rapp, Carl B. Watt, Mineo Kondo, Hiroko Terasaki, Robert E. Marc and Bryan W. Jones.

Almost full resolution version here.

Authors:

Crystal L Sigulinsky1, Rebecca L Pfeiffer1, James R. Anderson1, Christopher N. Rapp1, Jeebika Dahal1, Jessica C Garcia1, Jia-Hui Yang1, Daniel P. Emrich1, Hope Morrison1, Kevin D. Rapp1, Carl B. Watt1, Mineo Kondo2, Hiroko Terasaki3, Robert E. Marc1, Bryan W. Jones1
1Moran Eye Center/ Ophthalmology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States; 2Mie University, Tsu, Japan; 3Nagoya University, Nagoya-shi, Japan;

ABSTRACT:

Background and aim:
Gap junctions are prevalent throughout the neural retina, with expression by every major neuronal class and at every level of signal processing. Yet, the functional roles and expressing cells/participating networks for many remain unknown. Spontaneous network spontaneous hyperactivity observed during retinal degeneration contributes to visual impairment and requires gap junctional coupling in the Aii amacrine cell/ON cone bipolar cell (CBC) network.  However, it remains unclear whether this hyperactivity reflects changes in the underlying circuitry or dysfunction of the normative circuitry. Here, we used connectomics-based mapping of retinal circuitry to 1) define the coupling architecture of the Aii/ON CBC network in healthy adult rabbit retina using connectome RC1 and 2) evaluate changes in coupling motifs in RPC1, a pathoconnectome from a rabbit retinal degeneration model.

Methods:

RC1 and RPC1 are connectomes built by automated transmission electron microscopy at ultrastructural (2 nm/pixel) resolution. RC1 is a 0.25 mm diameter volume of retina from a 13-month old, light adapted female Dutch Belted rabbit. RPC1 is a 0.07 mm diameter volume of degenerate retina from a transgenic P347L model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (10-months old, male, New Zealand White background) presenting with ~50% rod loss. ON CBCs, Aii amacrine cells, and their coupling partners were annotated using the Viking application. Coupling motifs and features were explored with 3D rendering and network graph visualization. Gap junctions were validated by 0.25 nm resolution recapture with goniometric tilt when necessary.

Results:

Complete reconstruction of 37 ON CBCs in RC1 yielded 1339 gap junctions and revealed pervasive in- and cross-class coupling motifs among ON CBCs that produce complex network topologies within the coupled Aii network. Robust rulesets underlie class-specific coupling profiles with specificity defined beyond geometric opportunity. These coupling profiles enabled classification of all 145 ON CBCs contained within RC1 into 7 distinct classes. In RPC1, two ON CBC classes appear to retain their class-specific coupling profiles, accepting and rejecting specific combinations of Aii and ON CBC class partnerships. However, aberrant partnerships exist, including both loss of motifs and acquisition of novel ones.

Conclusions:

Gap junctions formed by ON CBCs are prominent network components, with specificity rivaling that of chemical synapses. These gap junctions not only subserve canonical signal transfer for night vision, but also extensive coupling within and across the parallel processing streams. Clearly aberrant morphological and synaptic changes exist in RPC1, including changes in the coupling specificity of both Aii and ON CBCs. Thus, circuit topology is altered prior to complete loss of rods, with substantial implications for therapeutic interventions for blinding diseases that depend upon the surviving retinal network.

Marclab Off To ARVO2019

The Marclab is off to ARVO 2019 and eager to share some of what we’ve been up to over the past year.  We have undergraduate Jeebika Dahal presenting her work on the AII Amacrine Cell Connectivity Changes In Degenerating Retina on Sunday (see poster B0013 Abstract Number: 551 – B0013).  Undergraduate Selena Wirthlin will present her work on the Comparative Anatomy and Connectivity Of The AII Amacrine Cell In Mouse And Rabbit Retina on Sunday (poster B0010 Abstract Number: 548 – B0010). Undergraduate and US Navy veteran Jessica Garcia will present her work Sunday on OFF-layer Branches Of ON Cone Bipolar Cells In Early Retinal Degeneration (B0017 Abstract Number: 555 – B0017). And postdoc Crystal Sigulinsky will present her work on Coupling Architecture Of The Aii/ON Cone Bipolar Cell Network In Degenerate Retina in a platform presentation on Thursday at 11:15am (Abstract Number: 6441).

We hope to see you there!

Rod Bipolar Cell Networks In A Retinal Pathoconnectome

We presented a poster on Rod Bipolar Cell Networks In A Retinal Pathoconnectome at the 2019 HHMI Connectomics meeting in Berlin today. Downsampled PDF of poster here.

Authors: Rebecca L. Pfeiffer, James R. Anderson, Daniel P. Emrich, Jeebika Dahal, Crystal L. Sigulinsky, Jia-Hui Yang, Kevin D. Rapp, Carl B. Watt, Jessica C. Garcia, Mineo Kondo, Hiroko Terasaki, Robert E. Marc, and Bryan W. Jones.

Abstract: Ultrastructural connectomics has allowed for precise identification of neural network topologies in retina, exposing synaptic connectivity associated with specific pathways involved in neural retinal processing. In pathological degenerate retina such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), retinal remodeling emerges as a phenomenon through a series of negative plasticity events originating from neural deafferentation initiated by photoreceptor degeneration. Early stages of remodeling include glial changes, GluR receptor alterations (reprogramming), and rewiring of retinal networks. The connectivities initiated by these processes are currently unknown. To address this problem, we have created an ultrastructural pathoconnnectome of early retinal remodeling in a rabbit model of retinitis pigmentosa, Retinal Pathoconnectome 1 (RPC1).

Mapping the network architecture of gap junctional coupling among parallel processing channels in the mammalian retina

We presented a poster on Mapping the network architecture of gap junctional coupling among parallel processing channels in the mammalian retina at the 2019 HHMI Connectomics meeting in Berlintoday. Downsampled PDF of poster here.

Authors: Crystal L. Sigulinsky, James R. Anderson, Ethan Kerzner, Christopher N. Rapp, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer, Daniel P. Emrich, Kevin D. Rapp, Noah T. Nelson, J. Scott Lauritzen, Miriah Meyer, Robert E. Marc, and Bryan W. Jones.

Abstract: Electrical synapses are fundamental components of neural networks. Gap junctions provide the anatomical basis for electrical synapses and are prevalent throughout the neural retina with essential roles in signal transmission. Gap junctions within and between the parallel processing channels afforded by retinal bipolar cells have been reported or predicted, but their roles, partners, and patterns remain largely unknown. Here, we took advantage of the high resolution of Retinal Connectome 1 (RC1) to reconstruct ON cone bipolar cells (CBCs) and map their coupling topologies.

Ryan Initiative for Macular Research 2019

Last week I attended the Ryan Initiative for Macular Research meeting at the Beckman Center down in Los Angeles.  This was my first time attending the meeting as I’ve not traditionally been an AMD scientist.  Though we’ve been working more and more in the field, applying what we’ve learned through the study of other retinal degenerative diseases.

I gotta say this feels like a bit of a victory of sorts as we’ve been advocating more attention to the inner retina in retinal degenerative disease for a while now.  Our work is better known in the field of retinitis pigmentosa, but we’ve published work showing that AMD behaves just like retinitis pigmentosa which is incredibly similar to CNS neurodegenerative disease.  This is a perspective we will be pushing harder in the very near future, including a position that we should be using retina as a model for understanding CNS disease.

 

There are more photos of the meeting over on Jonesblog.

Rod Bipolar Cell Networks in Early Retinal Remodeling

Rebecca Pfeiffer, a post-doc in the laboratory presented her work on “Rod Bipolar Cell Networks in Early Retinal Remodeling” as a platform presentation at the ISER 2018 meeting in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Authors: Rebecca Pfeiffer, James R. Anderson, Daniel P. Emrich, Jeebika Dahal, Crystal L Sigulinsky, Hope AB Morrison, Jia-Hui Yang, Carl B. Watt, Kevin D. Rapp, Jessica C Garcia, Mineo Kondo, Hiroko Terasaki, Robert E. Marc, and Bryan W. Jones.

Abstract: Retinal remodeling is a form of negative plasticity that occurs as a consequence of retinal degenerative diseases. Part of retinal remodeling involves anomalous sprouting of processes, termed neurites. The synaptic structures and partners of the neurites are not yet defined, leading to uncertainty about the consistency of network motifs between healthy and degenerate retina. Our goal is to map out the identities and network relationships of bipolar cell networks using a connectomics strategy. Retinal connectomes or ultrastructural maps of neuronal connectivity have substantially contributed to our understanding of retinal network topology, providing ground truth against which pathological network topologies can be evaluated. We have generated the first pathoconnectome (RPC1), or connectome of pathological tissues, of early retinal remodeling at 2nm/pixel, and are currently investigating the impact of remodeling on network architecture.
The tissue for RPC1 was obtained from a 10mo transgenic P347L rabbit model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Tissue was fixed in mixed aldehydes, osmicated, dehydrated, embedded in epon resin, and sectioned at 70nm. Serial sections were placed on grids, stained, and imaged using a JEOL JEM-1400 TEM using SerialEM software. Every 30th section was reserved for computational molecular phenotyping (CMP), and probed for small molecules: glutamate, glutamine, glycine, GABA, taurine, glutathione; or TEM compatible proteins GFAP and GS. The pathoconnectome volume is explored and annotated using the Viking software suite.
RPC1 was selected as an example of early retinal remodeling, demonstrating Muller cell hypertrophy, metabolic dysregulation, and degeneration of rod outer segments, indicating phase 1 remodeling and neuronal sprouting. We have observed the presence of both cone pedicles and rod spherules within the OPL to be synaptically active with neurites from some rod bipolar cells forming functional synapses with both rod spherules and cone pedicles. These rod bipolar cells also exhibit structurally altered ribbon synapses. We are currently evaluating network motifs and comparing them to networks established from our previous connectome, RC1, generated from a healthy rabbit.
These findings allow us to evaluate and analyze the impact of retinal remodeling on retinal networks which may have important implications for therapeutic interventions being developed which rely on inner retina network integrity.

Pathoconnectome Analysis of Müller Cells in Early Retinal Remodeling

Rebecca Pfeiffer, a post-doc in the laboratory presented her work on “Pathoconnectome Analysis of Müller Cells in Early Retinal Remodeling” as a platform presentation at the RD2018 meeting in Killarney, Ireland.

Authors: Rebecca Pfeiffer, James R. Anderson, Daniel P. Emrich, Jeebika Dahal, Crystal L Sigulinsky, Hope AB Morrison, Jia-Hui Yang, Carl B. Watt, Kevin D. Rapp, Mineo Kondo, Hiroko Terasaki, Jessica C Garcia, Robert E. Marc, and Bryan W. Jones.

Purpose: Glia play important roles in neural system function. These roles include, but are not limited to: amino acid recycling, ion homeostasis, glucose transport, and removal of waste. During retinal degeneration, Muller cells, the primary macroglia of the retina, are one of the first cells to show metabolic and morphological alterations in response to retinal stress. The metabolic alterations observed in Muller cells appear to manifest in regions of photoreceptor degeneration; however, the precise mechanisms that govern these alterations in response to neuronal stress, synapse maintenance, or glia-glia interactions is currently unknown.  This project aims to reconstruct Muller cells from a pathoconnectome of early retinal remodeling at 2nm/pixel with ultrastructural metabolic data to determine the relationship of structural and metabolic phenotypes between neighboring neurons and glia.

Methods:  Retinal pathoconnectome 1 (RPC1) is the first connectome to be assembled from pathologic neural tissue (a pathoconnectome). The tissue selected for RPC1 was collected post mortem from a 10 month transgenic P347L rabbit model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, fixed in 1% formaldehyde, 2.5% glutaraldehyde, 3% sucrose, and 1mM MgSO4 in cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4). The tissue was subsequently osmicated, dehydrated, resin embedded, and sectioned at 70nm. Sections were placed on formvar grids, stained, and imaged at 2nm/pixel on a JEOL JEM-1400 TEM using SerialEM software. 1 section was reserved from every 30 sections for CMP, where it was placed on a slide and probed for small molecules: glutamate, glutamine, glycine, GABA, taurine, glutathione; or TEM compatible proteins GFAP and GS. The pathoconnectome volume was evaluated and annotated using the Viking software suite.

Results: RPC1 demonstrates hallmarks of early retinal degeneration and remodeling, including the glial phenotypes of hypertrophy and metabolic variation between neighboring Muller cells. Early evaluation of these glia demonstrates variations in osmication in Muller cells as well as apparent encroachment of glial end-feet on one another.  We are currently in the process of reconstructing multiple Muller cells within RPC1 and their neighboring neurons.  Once complete, we will assess the relationship between Muller cell phenotype and the phenotypes of contacted neuronal and glial neighbors.

Conclusions: How neural-glial relationships are affected by retinal remodeling may help us understand why remodeling and neurodegeneration follow photoreceptor degeneration. In addition, determining these relationships during remodeling will be crucial to developing therapeutics with long-term success. RPC1 provides a framework to analyze these relationships in early retinal remodeling through ultrastructural reconstructions of all neurons and glia in an intact retina. These reconstructions, informed by quantitative metabolite labeling, will allow us to evaluate these neural-glial interactions more comprehensively than other techniques have previously allowed.

Coupling Architecture Of The Aii/ON Cone Bipolar Cell Network In The Degenerate Retina

Crystal Sigulinsky, a post-doc in the lab, presented her work on “coupling architecture of the
Aii/ON cone bipolar cell network in the degenerate retina” at the RD2018 meeting in Killarney, Ireland today.  Authors are: Crystal L Sigulinsky, Rebecca L Pfeiffer, James R Anderson, Jeebika Dahal, Hope Morrison, Daniel P. Emrich, Jessica C Garcia, Jia-Hui Yang, Carl B. Watt, Kevin D. Rapp, Mineo Kondo, Hiroko Terasaki, Robert E. Marc, and Bryan W. Jones.

Purpose: Retinal network hyperactivity within degenerative retinal networks is a component of the disease process with implications for therapeutic interventions for blinding diseases that depend upon the surviving retinal network. Connexin36-containing gap junctions centered on the Aii amacrine cell network appear to mediate the aberrant signaling observed in mouse models of retinal degeneration. However, it remains unclear whether this hyperactivity reflects changes in the underlying circuitry or dysfunction/dysregulation of the normative circuitry. Mapping retinal circuitry in the ultrastructural rabbit Retinal Connectome, RC1, has revealed Aii network topologies explicitly involving gap junctions. In addition to canonical Aii-to-Aii and Aii-to-ON cone bipolar cell (CBC) coupling, we describe pervasive in- and cross-class coupling motifs among ON CBCs that extend and dramatically expand the coupled Aii network topologies. Since virtually every gap junction in the inner plexiform layer contains Connexin36, these circuits likely participate in the aberrant signaling of degenerate retinas. This study examines these Aii and ON CBC coupling motifs in Retinal PathoConnectome 1 (RPC1), an ultrastructural pathoconnectome of a rabbit model of retinitis pigmentosa.

Approach: RPC1 is a 2nm/pixel resolution volume of retina from a 10 month old, transgenic P347L rabbit model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in early phase 1 retinal remodeling, a time point where cone and rod photoreceptors are still present, albeit going through cell stress. RPC1 spans the vitreous to basal outer nuclear layer and was built by automated transmission electron microscopy and computational assembly. ON CBCs, Aii amacrine cells, and their coupling partners were annotated using the Viking application and explored with 3D rendering and graph visualization of connectivity. Gap junctions were validated by 0.25 nm resolution recapture with goniometric tilt when necessary. Motifs were compared to those discovered in RC1. RC1 is a 2 nm resolution, 0.25 mm diameter volume of a light-adapted adult female Dutch Belted rabbit retina spanning the ganglion cell through inner nuclear layers.

Conclusions: RPC1 shows degeneration of rod outer segments, Müller cell hypertrophy and neuronal sprouting, characteristic of early stage retinal degeneration and phase 1 remodeling, when retinal hyperactivity and its reliance on gap junctional coupling has likely already initiated and human patients would still have some vision. All major coupling motifs (Aii-to-Aii, Aii-to-ON CBC, and ON CBC-to-ON CBC) were observed. Preliminary examinations indicate that several ON CBC classes retained their class-specific coupling profiles, accepting and rejecting specific combinations of Aii and ON CBC class partnerships. However, recent findings reveal aberrant partnerships in the coupled network, including both loss of prominent motifs and acquisition of novel ones. Thus, clear aberrant morphological and synaptic changes have been identified in RPC1, including changes in the coupling specificity and gap junction distributions of both Aii amacrine cells and ON CBCs (Figure 6). This suggests that the Aii/ON CBC circuit topology is already altered during early phase 1 remodeling, with substantial implications for therapeutic interventions in human subjects. The full coupling network is actively being examined and progress has begun on RPC2, a second pathoconnectome for examining later, phase 2 remodeling in this same model.

An almost full size poster available here in pdf format.

Off to RD2018 and ISER 2018

The Marclab for Connectomics is off to RD2018 and ISER 2018 in Killarney, Ireland and Belfast, Northern Ireland.  I’ll be organizing sessions on retinal degeneration, and I’m tremendously proud of the work Dr. Crystal Sigulinsky will be presenting from her work on gap junctional connectivity in retinal degenerations and the work Dr. Rebecca Pfeiffer (@BeccaPfeiffer19) will be presenting on her work on the retinal pathoconnectome in two talks on bipolar cells and Müller cells.