Category Archives: Pathoconnectomics

Preprint: Neural Circuit Revision in Retinal Remodeling, A Pathoconnectomics Approach

We have a new preprint out, Neural Circuit Revision in Retinal Remodeling, A Pathoconnectomics Approach.

Authors: Rebecca L Pfeiffer, Jeebika Dahal, Crystal L Sigulinsky, James R Anderson, Isabel A Barrera, Jia-Hui Yang, Olivia Haddadin, Alexis R Houser, Jessica C Garcia, Bryan William Jones

Abstract: The Aii glycinergic amacrine cell (Aii) plays a central role in bridging rod pathways with cone pathways, enabling an increased dynamic range of vision from scotopic to photopic ranges. The Aii integrates scotopic signals via chemical synapses from rod bipolar cells (RodBCs) onto the arboreal processes of Aii ACs, injecting signals into ON-cone bipolar cells (CBbs) via gap junctions with Aiis on the arboreal processes and the waist of the Aii ACs. The CBbs then carry this information to ON and OFF ganglion cell classes. In addition, the Aii is involved in the surround inhibition of OFF cone bipolar cells (CBas) through glycinergic chemical synapses from Aii ACs onto CBas. We have previously shown changes in RodBC connectivity as a consequence of rod photoreceptor degeneration in a pathoconnectome of early retinal degeneration: RPC1. Here, we evaluated the impact of rod photoreceptor degeneration on the connectivity of the Aii to determine the impacts of photoreceptor degeneration on the downstream network of the neural retina and its suitability for integrating therapeutic interventions as rod photoreceptors are lost. Previously, we reported that in early retinal degeneration, prior to photoreceptor cell loss, Rod BCs make pathological gap junctions with Aiis. Here, we further characterize this altered connectivity and additional shifts in both the excitatory drive and gap junctional coupling of Aiis in retinal degeneration, along with discussion of the broader impact of altered connectivity networks. New findings reported here demonstrate that Aiis make additional gap junctions with CBas increasing the number of BC classes that make pathological gap junctional connectivity with Aiis in degenerating retina. In this study, we also report that the Aii, a tertiary retinal neuron alters their synaptic contacts early in photoreceptor degeneration, indicating that rewiring occurs in more distant members of the retinal network earlier in degeneration than was previously predicted. This rewiring impacts retinal processing, presumably acuity, and ultimately its ability to support therapeutics designed to restore image-forming vision. Finally, these Aii alterations may be the cellular network level finding that explains one of the first clinical complaints from human patients with retinal degenerative disease, an inability to adapt back and forth from photopic to scotopic conditions.

UCI Center For Translational Vision Research Talk on Retinal Connectomics and Pathoconnectomics

Impact of Retinal Degeneration on Response of ON and OFF Cone Bipolar Cells to Electrical Stimulation

We have a new manuscript from the lab in IEEE, Impact of Retinal Degeneration on Response of ON and OFF Cone Bipolar Cells to Electrical Stimulation. This manuscript is in collaboration with the Lazzi lab out of USC.  The first author, Shayan Farzad, Pragya Kosta, Ege Iseri, Steven T Walston, Jean-Marie C. Bouteiller,  Rebecca L. Pfeiffer @BeccaPfeiffer19, Crystal L. Sigulinsky @CSigulinsky, Jia-Hui Yang, Jessica C. Garcia, James R. Anderson, Bryan W. Jones @BWJones, and Gianluca Lazzi. The PDF is here.

Abstract: In retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the photoreceptors become stressed and start to degenerate in the early stages of the disease. Retinal prosthetic devices have been developed to restore vision in patients by applying electrical stimulation to the surviving retinal cells. However, these devices provide limited visual perception as the therapeutic interventions are generally considered in the later stages of the disease when only inner retinal layer cells are left. A potential treatment option for retinal degenerative diseases in the early stages can be stimulating bipolar cells, which receive presynaptic signals from photoreceptors. In this work, we constructed computational models of healthy and degenerated (both ON and OFF-type) cone bipolar cells (CBCs) with realistic morphologies extracted from connectomes of the healthy and early-stage degenerated rabbit retina. We examined these cells’ membrane potential and axon terminal calcium current differences when subjected to electrical stimulation. In addition, we investigated how differently healthy and degenerated cells behave with respect to various stimulation parameters, including pulse duration and cells’ distance from the stimulating electrode. The results suggested that regardless of the position of the OFF CBCs in the retina model, there is not a significant difference between the membrane potential of healthy and degenerate cells when electrically stimulated. However, the healthy ON CBC axon terminal membrane potential rising time-constant is shorter (0.29 ± 0.03 ms) than the degenerated cells (0.8 ± 0.07 ms). Moreover, the ionic calcium channels at the axon terminals of the cells have a higher concentration and higher current in degenerated cells (32.24 ± 6.12 pA) than the healthy cells (13.64 ± 2.88 pA) independently of the cell’s position.

Müller Cell Connectomics In Health And Disease

This talk was presented today, April 25th at the 2023 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in New Orleans, Louisiana by Rebecca Pfeiffer as part of an ARVO Minisymposium Bryan William Jones organized.

Abstract: Muller cells are a critical component of retinal function and rapidly change metabolically and morphologically in retinal disease. Of Muller cell functions, many require close physical relationships between the Muller cell and the synapses of the neurons they support. Despite this required neuro-glial relationship, little is known about the direct contacts between Muller cells and synapses in healthy or diseased retinas. In order to address this, I use a connectomics/pathoconnectomics approach to reconstruct Muller cells and their neighboring synapses. The retinas evaluated are from a healthy rabbit, retinal connectome 1 (RC1), and from the P347L rabbit model of retinitis pigmentosa, retinal pathoconnectome 1 (RPC1). Preliminary data demonstrate an increase in endfoot entanglement in RPC1 when compared with RC1, and direct synaptic contact analysis of both connectomes is ongoing.

Current Perspective on Retinal Remodeling: Implications for Therapeutics

We have a new paper out of the lab, a perspectives paper on Retinal Remodeling: Implications for Therapeutics. (pdf here).

Authors are Rebecca L. Pfeiffer @BeccaPfeiffer19, and Bryan W. Jones @BWJones.

Abstract: The retinal degenerative diseases retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Both present with progressive photoreceptor degeneration that is further complicated by processes of retinal remodeling. In this perspective, we discuss the current state of the field of retinal remodeling and its implications for vision-restoring therapeutics currently in development. Here, we discuss the challenges and pitfalls retinal remodeling poses for each therapeutic strategy under the premise that understanding the features of retinal remodeling in totality will provide a basic framework with which therapeutics can interface. Additionally, we discuss the potential for approaching therapeutics using a combined strategy of using diffusible molecules in tandem with other vision-restoring therapeutics. We end by discussing the potential of the retina and retinal remodeling as a model system for more broadly understanding the progression of neurodegeneration across the central nervous system.

One Connectome Finished, Another Pathoconnectome Begins

We finished sectioning and capturing a massive new retinal connectome that we are going to be so excited to announce at some point in the not too distant future.  Effective immediately, we are also starting on a brand new pathoconnectome that we will be powering through over the next little while. Thanks to the team of people who make this happen, shown in this post are Jia-Hui Yang, Matt Berardy, and Rebecca Pfeiffer. More photos here.

Model-Based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina

We have a new manuscript out in Experimental Eye Research, Model-Based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina. (pdf here)

Authors: Pragya Kosta, Ege Iseri, Kyle Loizos, Javad Paknahad, Rebecca L. Pfeiffer @BeccaPfeiffer19, Crystal L. Sigulinsky @CLSigulinsky, James R. Anderson, Bryan W. Jones @BWJones, and Gianluca Lazzi.

Abstract: Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, are generally thought to initiate with the loss of photoreceptors, though recent work suggests that plasticity and remodeling occurs prior to photoreceptor cell loss. This degeneration subsequently leads to death of other retinal neurons, creating functional alterations and extensive remodeling of retinal networks. Retinal prosthetic devices stimulate the surviving retinal cells by applying external current using implanted electrodes. Although these devices restore partial vision, the quality of restored vision is limited. Further knowledge about the precise changes in degenerated retina as the disease progresses is essential to understand how current flows in retinas undergoing degenerative disease and to improve the performance of retinal prostheses. We developed computational models that describe current flow from rod photoreceptors to rod bipolar cells


Model-based Comparison of Current Flow in Rod Bipolar Cells of Healthy and Early-Stage Degenerated Retina